The knowledge of orthography is a revolution in the brain

Alexandre Castro-Caldas*, Alexandra Reis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Brain adaptation to the type of information that is processed has been documented in several conditions in animals and humans. Illiteracy due to social reasons is a good source of information to investigate the adaptation mechanisms to the formal knowledge of written language. In this paper, a series of studies addressing this topic are reviewed. Illiterate subjects and their carefully selected controls were compared in several experimental conditions. It is concluded that schooling and in particular the knowledge of orthography introduces in the brain new strategies for information processing that manifest themselves in task performance, in brain activation studies and in anatomical studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-97
Number of pages17
JournalReading and Writing
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain
  • Illiteracy
  • Language processing
  • Orthography
  • Schooling


Dive into the research topics of 'The knowledge of orthography is a revolution in the brain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this