The potential of acorn extract treatment on PUFAS oxidative stability: a case study on fish cooking wastewater

Helena Araújo-Rodrigues, Tânia Bragança Ribeiro*, Manuela Machado, Carlos D. Pereira, Manuela E. Pintado

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Fish byproducts are valuable sources of Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Their valorization potentially alleviates pressure on this sector. This study uses a circular economy approach to investigate the oil fraction from sardine cooking wastewater (SCW). Analysis of its fatty acid (FA) profile revealed promising PUFA levels. However, PUFAs are highly susceptible to oxidation, prompting the exploration of effective and natural strategies to replace synthetic antioxidants and mitigate their associated risks and concerns. An antioxidant extract from acorn shells was developed and evaluated for its efficacy in preventing oxidative degradation. The extract exhibited significant levels of total phenolic compounds (TPC: 49.94 and 22.99 mg TAE or GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activities (ABTS: 72.46; ORAC: 59.60; DPPH: 248.24 mg TE/g DW), with tannins comprising a significant portion of phenolics (20.61 mg TAE/g DW). LC-ESI-UHR-QqTOF-MS identified ellagic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and azelaic acid as the predominant phenolic compounds. The extract demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the peroxide index and inhibit PUFA oxidation, including linoleic acid (LA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This approach holds promise for developing stable, functional ingredients rich in PUFAs. Future research will focus on refining oil extraction procedures and conducting stability tests towards the development of specific applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number935
Number of pages16
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2024


  • Acorn shell
  • Antioxidant extracts
  • PUFA oxidation
  • Fish byproducts
  • Sardine cooking effluent


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