The style Troika model: a structural model of the thinking and creating styles scale

Sara Ibérico Nogueira, Leonor Almeida, Soraia Garcês, Margarida Pocinho, Solange Wechsler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Individuals express their creativity through a variety of thinking and creating styles (Wechsler, 2006, 2007). These constructs underlie the Thinking and Creating Styles Scale (TCSS), which is used to identify individuals' creating styles. The aim of this research is to assess the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the TCSS. Two studies were performed using 414 and 369 Portuguese participants with mean ages of 29.25 and 29.35 years, respectively. Study 1 consisted of an exploratory factor analysis that yielded a three-factor solution. Study 2 consisted of a confirmatory factor analysis used to test the fit and compare the suitability of several factorial solutions. The three-factor model (Non-Conforming/Transformer, Cautious/Reflexive, and Logical/Objective) with the best statistical fit was called the Troika Model. In this model, each factor had five items and showed good and acceptable indices of fit. This new three-factor structure results in a more efficient and attractive version of the TCSS: the Creating and Thinking Styles-Troika Scale (CTS-TS). Future studies should use the CTS-TS and other creativity assessment instruments to explore the creativity level and style dichotomy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-346
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Creative Behavior
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • CTS-TS
  • confirmatory analysis
  • thinking and creating styles
  • validation


Dive into the research topics of 'The style Troika model: a structural model of the thinking and creating styles scale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this