Time matters! How hybrid organizations use time to respond to divergent stakeholder demands

Tommaso Ramus*, Antonino Vaccaro, Pascual Berrone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Researchers have endeavoured to explore how hybrid organizations navigate conflicting institutional demands. Yet, the role of time has often been neglected. We address this oversight through a longitudinal comparative case study, where we investigate how time and stakeholder engagement shape hybrid organizations’ capacity to secure support from stakeholders adhering to different logics. Grounding our insights in the literatures on hybrid organizations and stakeholder management, we reveal how stakeholder demands that appear to be incompatible when analysed from a short-term perspective can be seen as paradoxical when addressed with a long-term perspective. We also find that the development of this paradoxical perspective is facilitated by stakeholder engagement. Finally, we show that a long-term perspective helps hybrid organizations manage symbolic and substantive actions with the appropriate sequence and timing. Together, this evidence contributes to research by providing a better understanding of temporality and how it influences the effectiveness of organizations in responding to divergent stakeholder demands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1529-1555
Number of pages27
JournalOrganization Studies
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Hybrid organizations
  • Stakeholders
  • Substantive actions
  • Symbolic actions
  • Time


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