Tramadol hydrochloride: Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse side effects, co-administration of drugs and new drug delivery systems

M. Vazzana, T. Andreani, J. Fangueiro, C. Faggio, C. Silva, A. Santini, M. L. Garcia, A. M. Silva, E. B. Souto*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tramadol hydrochloride (TrHC) is a synthetic analgesic drug exhibiting opioid and non-opioid properties, acting mainly on the central nervous system. It has been mostly used to treat pain, although its use to treat anxiety and depression has also been documented. These properties arise from the fact that they inhibit serotonin (5-HT) reuptake augmenting 5-HT concentration on the synaptic cleft. Despite this, TrHC has also been described to have several side effects which are mainly due to its fast metabolization and excretion which in turn requires multiple doses per day. To surpass this limitation, new pharmaceutical formulations are being developed intending the protection, target and sustained delivery as well as a reduction on daily dose aiming a reduction on the side effects. In the present work we have revised the efficacy, safety, biological and adverse effects of TrHC, and the added value of developing a novel drug delivery system for topical administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-238
Number of pages5
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Volume70
Issue numberC
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Drug delivery
  • Pain relief
  • Polyacrylates
  • Solid lipid nanoparticles
  • Tramadol hydrochloride

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