Treating retinopathies - Nanotechnology as a tool in protecting antioxidants agents

Sara Baptista da Silva*, Sandra Borges, Óscar Ramos, Manuela Pintado, Domingos Ferreira, Bruno Sarmento

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The retina possesses the highest oxygen uptake and glucose oxidation relative to any other tissue, which makes it more susceptible to oxidative stress than other organs or structures. Constant light irradiation, atmospheric oxygen, environmental chemicals, and physical abrasion contribute to oxidative stress as the key factor for the ocular degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress is responsible for the increased vascular permeability, disruption of blood-retinal barrier, apoptotic loss of retinal capillary cells, microvascular abnormalities, and retinal neovascularization. Whenever the antioxidant defense systems are depleted or not functional, vision impairment might be observed. For this reason antioxidants are fundamental agents in prophylactic forms of oxidative diseases. However, considering its sensitive structure, nanotechnology becomes a valid alternative in antioxidant protection, stability, bioavailability, and therapeutic efficacy, without collateral damage or side effects. This review casts light on the improved therapeutic use of antioxidants loaded in novel and pharmaceutically acceptable nanocarriers for ocular disease prevention, in particular retinopathies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSystems Biology of Free Radicals and Antioxidants
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9783642300189
ISBN (Print)9783642300172
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Antioxidants
  • Free radicals
  • Nanotechnology
  • Oxidative stress
  • Retinopathy


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