Unravelling the triad of neuroinvasion, neurodissemination, and neuroinflammation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the central nervous system

Marta Calado, Rita Ferreira, David Pires, Quirina Santos-Costa, Elsa Anes, Dora Brites, José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Since the identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in 1983, many improvements have been made to control viral replication in the peripheral blood and to treat opportunistic infections. This has increased life expectancy but also the incidence of age-related central nervous system (CNS) disorders and HIV-associated neurodegeneration/neurocognitive impairment and depression collectively referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND encompasses a spectrum of different clinical presentations ranging from milder forms such as asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment or mild neurocognitive disorder to a severe HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Although control of viral replication and suppression of plasma viral load with combination antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of HAD, it has not reversed milder forms of HAND. The objective of this review, is to describe the mechanisms by which HIV-1 invades and disseminates in the CNS, a crucial event leading to HAND. The review will present the evidence that underlies the relationship between HIV infection and HAND. Additionally, recent findings explaining the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of HAND will be discussed, along with prospects for treatment and control.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2534
Number of pages16
JournalReviews in Medical Virology
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

Keywords

  • Central nervous system
  • HIV-1
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • HIV-cell interactions

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