Validation of the Belief Into Action Scale (BIAC) in Portuguese cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

Helga Martins*, Sílvia Caldeira, Tiago Dias Domingues, Margarida Vieira, Harold G. Koenig

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: A large proportion of the world’s population have religious beliefs, with 84.0% indicating an affiliation with a specific religious group. Few comprehensive measures to assess religious involvement currently exist in Portugal, particularly for the assessment of religiosity in cancer patients. Objective: To translate, adapt, and validate the 10-item Belief Into Action Scale (BIAC) in Portuguese cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: The methodological guidelines provided by Sousa and Rojjanasrirat were used to examine the psychometric properties of the BIAC. Results: The linguistic and conceptual equivalence of the scale was determined. The internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s α =.86). Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization identified two factors made up of nine items. Conclusion: The European Portuguese version of the BIAC is a reliable and valid measure for assessing religiosity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy to provide holistic care.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-204
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Holistic Nursing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • Assessment
  • Nursing
  • Religion
  • Spirituality
  • Tools


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