Validation of the Portuguese version of the Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale

N. Piçarra, J. C. Giger*, G. Pochwatko, G. Gonçalves

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract Introduction Social robots are robots capable of a peer-to-peer communication with humans. Nomura, Kanda, and Suzuki (2004) developed the Negative Attitude towards Robots Scale (NARS) to measure the attitudes towards robots. NARS proved to be a useful tool to study human-robot interaction. Objective To assess the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the NARS (PNARS). Method and Results Four studies were conducted. In study 1 (nCombining double low line300), a principal component analysis showed that PNARS comprised two components: the negative attitudes towards robots with human traits (NARHT) and towards interaction with robots (NATIR). In study 2 (nCombining double low line536), a confirmatory factorial analysis was conducted. Results confirmed the two-factor solution of PNARS obtained in study 1. Study 3 (nCombining double low line107) tested the nomological validity of PNARS and showed that PNARS, NARHT and NATIR correlated with attitudes towards technology. Study 4 (nCombining double low line59) tested the predictive validity of PNARS and showed that scores on NARHT and NATIR predicted the future intention to work with a social robot and its affective and cognitive antecedents. Conclusion Globally, results indicate that PNARS is a reliable instrument to use in human-robot interaction studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number339
Pages (from-to)93-104
Number of pages12
JournalRevue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Intention to work with social robot
  • Negative attitudes towards robots
  • Social robots
  • Theory of planned behavior


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