A imputação de ataques ciber aos Estados
: estudo de caso: IT ARMY

  • Joana Isabel Aragão Pires (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


This work investigates the theme of attributing cyber attacks to States. In this case, the specific analysis was conducted on the IT Army and how it is possible to attribute cyber attacks to the State of Ukraine. Attribution and clarification of the boundaries of functional attribution are very important parameters in State relations. There are activities that were, until recently, solely performed by the State but are now carried out by private agents. It is believed that the IT Army is an organization composed of individuals from around the world connected through the Telegram network, and it is thought that this network is controlled by the Ukranian Ministry of Defense, which assigns targets and actions to be carried out by various members of this group. The IT Army is studied to identify what this organization is, who is involved, and how they operate. Next, the cyber dimension of conflicts is framed, with a focus on attributing cyberattacks. It is at this point that this work develops the process of functional attribution, as well as the behaviors of direction and control, which are crucial in functional attribution. Finally, future perspectives for an evolution in the process of functional attribution in cyber universe were presented.
Date of Award19 Feb 2024
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorMaria Isabel Tavares (Supervisor)


  • IT Army
  • Attribution
  • International humanitarian law
  • PARI
  • Tallin manual
  • Global control
  • Effective control


  • Mestrado em Direito

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