A imputação de ciberataques aos Estados

  • Inês Maria Araújo Martins (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Cyberspace has been assumed as a challenge for some International Law’s legal regimes. This dissertation, despite addressing other legal regimes’ challenges, will focus on the one that arises from the international responsibility regime, more specifically, the attribution of cyberattacks to States. Thus, at first, we will address the different domains that cyberspace has for the perpetration of cyberattacks, what it represents for hybrid conflict and the implications for States and organizations defense policies, regarding cyberdefence and cybersecurity. After framing the domain where the operations under analysis take place, we will move to the dissertation starring theme, the attribution of cyberattacks to States. In this context, the different processes of attribution (political, legal, technical) will be address, as well as the associated difficulties of each one of them. Furthermore, we will exemplify, with real cyberattacks cases, the importance of connecting the various attribution processes to obtain a more enlightened attribution. Next, we will address the importance that attribution of cyberattacks plays in the international responsibility regime, as well as in the restoration of international security and peace. Finally, we will mention, and criticize, solutions presented by some private entities to improve attribution processes.
Date of Award24 Nov 2022
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorJosé Azeredo Lopes (Supervisor)


  • Cyberspace
  • Cyberattacks
  • Attribution
  • Responsibility
  • Ciberdefence
  • Cybersecurity


  • Mestrado em Direito

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