Caracterização da exposição gengival do maxilar superior durante quatro expressões faciais

  • Magda de Freitas Olímpio Nogueira Mendes (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


INTRODUCTION: Due to the increasing aesthetic demand, the smile has gained more importance in clinical practice. However most of the studies consider the smile as a static expression and fewer take into account the dynamics of the expressions and the changes they cause. PURPOSE: characterize gingival display in the anterior-upper teeth in four different facial expressions, to help creating a more esthetic and natural rehabilitation treatment METHODS: Videos were made and then taken and examined 320 photographs corresponding to a population of 80 students of the Portuguese Catholic University. Then, using Image J, the vertical heights of exposed gums in the incisors, canines and first premolars were measured. For statistical processing of data IBM SPSS® Statistics v22 was used, which defined the intra-groups results and characterized each group for gender. Statistical analysis was performed using tests like Kolmogorov-Smirnov, two-way ANOVA due do the two sources of variation (intra and inter-subject), Mann-Whitney and Mauchly's test, Bonferroni method and Greenhouse-Geisser correction. RESULTS: The facial expression which exposes more gingival tissue, in general, is the intense grimace of disgust expression, that exposes an average of 3,08 mm of gingiva at the lateral incisors. Duchenne's smile is the expression which exposes more gingival tissue at the first premolars area. That area is never exposed in the funnel-shaped expression. With only 22.5% of male subjects, gender differences were in the funnel-shaped and intense grimace of disgust expressions, on the central incisors. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in gingival display in different expressions, influenced by numerous factors. The study of these differences can assist in planning a rehabilitation treatment more natural and aesthetic.
Date of Award29 Jul 2015
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorTiago Marques (Supervisor) & Filipe Miguel Araújo (Co-Supervisor)


  • Aesthetic dentistry
  • Gingival display
  • Facial expressions
  • Gingiva
  • Aesthetic rehabilitation


  • Mestrado em Medicina Dentária

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