Democratisation of solar energy in the housing market
: accelerating diffusion of rooftop photovoltaic systems in Germany

  • Erik Nicolas Ciesielski (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Germany aims to obtain 80% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030, positioning itself as a leader in sustainable energy transition. This requires extending photovoltaic system adoption with a goal of reaching a capacity of 215 GWp by the end of the decade. Participation from citizens, solution providers, the government and the apartment building sector is needed. This thesis examines the adoption of rooftop photovoltaic technology in the single-family home and apartment building sector. Based on interviews with industry experts and analysis of survey data, the findings identify several key factors for increased adoption. The single-family housing market, previously experiencing rapid growth, is now reaching maturity and saturation. In con trast, the apartment building sector presents a significant, yet largely unexplored, opportunity. Numerous obstacles, such as regulatory barriers and tenant accessibility issues, impede growth of the sector. Construction of apartment buildings is crucial for democratization of solar energy, as it enables tenants to participate in the transition to renewable energies as Germany pursues a sustainable future. The primary factors motivating individuals to adopt photovoltaic systems are lower initial cost, financial incentives, peer referrals, and environmental consciousness regarding CO2 emissions. Housing companies are already actively engaged in sustainability and making progress towards the shift towards renewable energy.
Date of Award25 Jan 2024
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorPeter V. Rajsingh (Supervisor)


  • Photovoltaic systems
  • Energy transition in Germany
  • Renewable energy
  • Single-family homes
  • Diffusion
  • Apartment building sector


  • Mestrado em Gestão e Administração de Empresas

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