Introduction: Food products have perceptual characteristics and conceptual associations that promote emotions on the consumer, which later drive the consumption behavior. Quantifying them provides insight for product development and nutritional patterns of consumption. Self-report questionnaires are the most common tools used to achieve this goal, used for the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The goal of the study was analyze which emotional associations different cultures associated with different beverage categories. Seven beverages were selected, for the alcoholic category: beer, wine and radler were analyzed and for non-alcoholic: non-alcoholic beer (NAB), cola, natural orange juice (NOJ) and water. The survey was built using Qualtrics software platform and distributed into two representative countries of the north and south of Europe, the Netherlands (NL) and Portugal (PT) respectively. The data collected in the Netherlands (n=449) and Portugal (n=423) provided information about the consumer gender, age, nationality, frequency of consumption, liking and emotional associations. From these data the type of consumer was defined per beverage and the frequencies of each emotion were analyzed first regarding their applicability for the beverage, excluding further the ones considered non-applicable and second without and with culture influence. The analysis without culture influence allowed to obtain a general emotion pattern, made by summing up the scores per emotion of both countries. In both cases no consumers were excluded from the analysis. Results: Alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages showed to promote feeling more emotions, but alcoholic ones more intensely than non-alcoholic, making also feel less negative emotions. For alcoholic beverages it was observed that positive low arousal emotions were produced by wine (amused, pleased and loving) and radler (happy, pleased, and relaxed). Radler also showed to decrease intensely in the NL negative emotions while making feel responsible and rational in PT. Beer produces positive high arousal emotions (free, joyful and exuberant) felt more in PT. For non-alcoholic beverages was observed that NAB makes feel disappointed, and specifically responsible, conscious and rational in the NL and adventurous in PT. Cola makes feel energetic and interestingly makes feel more conscious in PT and less in the NL. NOJ consumption promotes feeling more positive emotions energetic, happy, pleased and good. Water consumption makes consumers feel more conscious. Discussion: Wine positive low arousal emotions are intensely felt in PT, due to diverse culinary existent in PT since the main reason of wine consumption is its combination with food. Beer positive high arousal emotions are felt with weak intensity in the NL since the consumption is regular in order to decrease negative emotions. Radler is consumed in northern countries where it shows a similar emotion pattern as other alcoholic beverages, while in PT it seems to be a low calorie option. NAB is still compared to beer, especially in the NL, but Portuguese consumers’ associate adventurous showing they are keener to consume it. Cola was associated with the emotion energetic due to its nutritional profile, although conscious was felt less in the NL and more in PT indicating different contexts of consumption. NOJ is linked with a healthy connotation and water showed consumers have a conscious consumption knowing its physiological importance. Conclusion: self-report questionnaires have potential to develop emotion profiles within different beverages categories. Generally, the alcoholic beverages serve the purpose of obtaining relaxation and relieving from negative emotions, while non-alcoholic beverages focus more on feeling energized and obtain the nutritional benefits of the beverage consciously, especially with NOJ and water. Wine and beer consumption produce positive emotions felt more intensely by Portuguese consumers, while Dutch feel strongly relieve from negative and neutral emotions. Radler has an emotion profile similar to other alcoholic beverages in the NL and a conscious consumption in PT. NAB promotes neutral emotions in the NL but in PT consumers are keener to consume it. Cola is an energetic beverage, although it was expected happy to be highlighted, having In PT a conscious consumption is.
|Date of Award||21 Sept 2017|
- Universidade Católica Portuguesa
|Supervisor||Ana Patrícia Silva (Supervisor)|
- Self-report questionnaire
- Mestrado em Biotecnologia e Inovação