Motherhood is a continuous and complex process, that goes through the pre-childbirth, childbirth and post-childbirth periods. Late Motherhood, according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, starts from 35 years of age inclusive. The objective of this study is to better understand the factors that influence Late Motherhood and the impact on the mother's family: by clarifying the surging needs of late mothers, couples and family; acquire knowledge to identify problems, and plan, implement and evaluate courses of action to improve the health and quality of life of the mother. Identifying the support needs and the required care helps the late mother, couple and family to suppress any gaps. The lack of a data collecting instrument took us to the creation of 2 Item lists, based on literature, evaluated by experts. To study the late motherhood factors and the family impact, we adopted an exploratory study approach with quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data were analyzed according to a descriptive inferential study and the qualitative data were submitted to Bardin's content analysis. A sample of 483 late mothers was selected by non-probabilistic sampling techniques, convenient rational selection and by inclusion and exclusion criteria. A preliminary test was made to 25 mothers to test the viability and the reliability of the evaluation instrument. A form composed by closed questions, scales (after item validation) and a semi-open question was given to mothers that did not submit to fertility tests, significant abortions or other kind of pathology that prevented motherhood. Another set of questions composed by 1 semi-open, 3 closed and one open question was given to mothers where they found most convenient. In this study, ethical questions were taken into consideration on the data collection phase: Approval given by the Ethics Commission of CHMA; Information to Experts/Study subjects; Respect their interest; and Informed Consent. After the data collection phase, these ethical questions were taken into consideration: Confidentiality; Anonymity; and Make known the used methodologies. From the emerging quantitative data from interviews, it was verified that mothers that delayed due to affective factors are divorced, non-marital partnership, married or widowed, have less studies, a gestation, with consultation(s) and childbirth at CHMA; the Graduates and Graduates with Master's degree delayed motherhood due to family support and the ones with complicated childbirths delay due to affective, social and family support factors. The social impact is changed on mothers with twins of 2 or more than 4 years old; the affective impact is very changed on the ones that live on Porto district. Most of these mothers did not require special health care and did not attend childbirth preparation classes. From the ones that required support on the hospital after childbirth, the single mothers can be emphasized. The single mothers with more than 41 years of old, unemployed, that live with parents/father/mother+children/mother+child, on Braga district, with monthly income of 1000 to 2000 euro, with just one gestation, that had appointments at Santo Tirso health center, underwent a Caesarian birth at Famalicão health center, with babies from 1500 to 2000 grams or in case of twins regardless of weight. The mothers that delayed due to social factors, the impact upon baby's arrival is changed at social level. Those that delayed due to family support present a social impact and an affective impact; those that delayed due to affective or social factors would have more children if they could go back; the women that delayed due to affective factors, required support after the childbirth; the mothers that delayed due to family support, did not participate at childbirth preparation classes. The qualitative data were divided into domains, categories and in subcategories. Considering the first category, it was verified that the supportive personal and familiar relationships to be the ones most answered with "Transition conditions*; regarding the "Special care taken during pregnancy. Only 190 interviewed mothers required these cares. Most of these late mothers do not feel accomplished at personal and familiar level. The quantitative data that do not present statistical significance and justified by other qualitative data, it can be verified: The age in years of the babies/children influence the support needs on the motherhood care; there is a relationship with the affective and social impact and the support needs; the support needs are influenced by factors that made them delay motherhood such as: personal accomplishment, inhibiting personal accomplishment, inhibiting familiar accomplishment. Most of these mothers refer to insecurity on the motherhood care. They also refer the support: firstly, from husband, companion and children, when existing; secondly, from other family members; thirdly from babysitters, kindergartens and friends, and lastly, from on-site support from health professionals. The collected data from these interviews allows us to obtain guiding results to improve the quality on late motherhood and family care, and a successful late motherhood.
|Date of Award
|1 Jun 2022
- Universidade Católica Portuguesa
|Margarida Maria Vieira (Supervisor)