Guerra híbrida e métodos de subversão desenvolvidos pela República Popular da China e Estados Unidos da América
: 1989-2020

  • Pedro Gomes (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


This dissertation was developed with the intent of analysing the intricate characteristics of hybrid warfare and subversion, particularly what these two methods entail geopolitically and for the projection of power. The research has been dedicated to two countries and superpowers, the United States of America and the People's Republic of China, along with a contextualisation of their strategic culture. This academic effort examines the history of Grand Strategy and strategy, while also exploring the History and culture of the aforementioned countries, in their long-term pursuit to protect their interests. It also includes two case studies to delve further into their specific elements and to corroborate possible parallelisms. For the United States of America, the case study concerns the 2011 intervention in Libya and what it entailed, such as the strategic consequences in the region. For the People's Republic of China, the case study pertains to the long-term campaign in the South China Sea, and for example, the nonconventional and subversive efforts conducted to project power in the region. The year of 1989 represents the accelerated breakthrough and split of the Cold War’s model, as signs of evident implosion of the eastern bloc are revealed, such as the fall of the Berlin Wall. For the USA this implied a belated evaluation of the strategic situation as a superpower. For China, the year of 1989 correlates to the protests of Tiananmen and the revaluation on behalf of the Communist Party of their domestic and foreign agenda, of the Maoist project and the concerns regarding socialism with Chinese characteristics. The comparison of the United States and China concerning hybrid warfare elucidates the differences between their military capacity and strategic culture. China has been conducting hybrid efforts to reduce the USA’s capacity, while improving its own arsenal. As a reaction, the United States superpower has recently adopted an assertive position regarding Chinese interference.
Date of Award3 Nov 2021
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorFrancisco Proença Garcia (Supervisor)


  • Strategy
  • Hybrid warfare
  • Subversion
  • Geostrategy
  • Geopolitics


  • Mestrado em Ciência Política e Relações Internacionais: Segurança e Defesa

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