Impacto da variação das normas na perceção estética do sorriso
: revisão sistemática

  • Ana Paula Lopes Marques (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Introduction: Smile esthetics depends on several parameters such as teeth position, size, shape and color, as well as gingival exposure and lip contour, which must be evaluated as a whole, in order to obtain a smile that is as aesthetic and harmonious as possible. Notwithstanding the current concepts of aesthetics must be focused on the balance between beauty and harmony according to personal desires, cultural and genetic factors. Thus, basic and specific standards must be considered in order to understand the patient's particular expectations and needs. This systematic review aims to systematize the current recognition of the impact of variations in the norm on the aesthetic perception of the smile. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was carried out using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The research was guided by the following PICO question: Is the aesthetic perception of the dentolabial complex of the general population influenced by the change in aesthetic norms? The studies were analyzed respecting the previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred articles were selected, which after evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion criteria resulted in 13 final articles. Results: Of the articles included in this systematic review, regarding facial symmetry, 1 article referred to this variable, 3 to oral corridors, 4 to the smile's arch and line, 4 to diastemas and midline deviations, 4 to tooth size, 1 to positioning of the anterior teeth and finally, 8 to the exposure and gingival margin. After photographic manipulation and evaluation of them, the evaluators connoted these changes as aesthetic or non-aesthetic. Conclusion: Changing the aesthetic norms of the smile has an impact on its aesthetic evaluation, and all variations of the dentolabial complex caused more or less aesthetic perceptions in different groups, such as general dentists, orthodontists, periodontologists, dental specialists, dental students and lay people. Thus, deviations of 6mm or more in facial symmetries, profiles with reversed smile arcs, deviations of the midline and diastemas greater than 4mm, manipulations with a reduction in the clinical crown, maintaining the original width with shortening equal to or greater than 1.5mm, extrusions of the maxillary central incisor greater than 1.5mm or its intrusion greater than 1mm and gingival exposures greater than 5mm were perceived as unaesthetic.
Date of Award20 Jul 2021
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorRute Rio (Supervisor) & Pedro Lopes (Co-Supervisor)


  • Smile
  • Perception
  • Aesthetics
  • Photo manipulation
  • Aesthetic standards


  • Mestrado em Medicina Dentária

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