Incorporação e optimização de aditivos alimentares e auxiliares tecnológicos em produtos de panificação

  • Lizi Margarete Cunha Sousa (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


The aim of this work is to contribute to the study of frozen pre-baked bread production, through the incorporation and optimization of the nature and concentration of food additives and technological devices. For this purpose, there have been made preliminary studies of the components compatibilities and, later on, it was applied a 24 factorial experimental design with 4 independent variables: dosage of oxidizing agent (X1), dosage acidity regulator (X2), dosage of emulsifier (X3) and dosage of stabilizer (X4), to study the single or combined effect of these compounds on the quality of bread. Simultaneously, a new amount of bread was produced with a standard formulation, with food additives and technological devices incorporated in unknown concentrations, due to the fact of being incorporated in a commercial mixture. The parameters value of pH, the instrumental color crumb, the instrumental texture and overall quality of breads (specific volume, crust color, breaking and symmetry, characteristics of the crust, crumb color, crumb cell structure, crumb texture, aroma and flavor) were analyzed. The best rating in the preliminary tests was with the combination of oxidizing agent, the acidity regulator, an emulsifier and a stabilizer, reaching to a value of the specific volume of 4,41 cm3/g and a rating of 7 for the appearance of bread. Regarding to the results of the experimental design, more specifically the crumb color, combining the value of L*, a* and b* it can be concluded that the incorporation of 20 ppm ascorbic acid and 2000 ppm DATEM were the most satisfactory results (p<0,05). The specific volume was affected (p<0,05) by adding 20 ppm ascorbic acid and 5000 ppm guar gum, with these being the best results. Regarding the crumb color, the best results (p<0,05) were with the incorporation of 20 ppm ascorbic acid and 2000 ppm of DATEM. Also regarding the crumb cell structure, the best results (p<0,05) were the incorporation of 20 ppm ascorbic acid and 2000 ppm DATEM. Regarding the crumb texture the addition of 5000 ppm of soy flour and 2000 ppm of DATEM were the most satisfactory results (p<0,05). Parameters such as instrumental texture (firmness and resilience), crust color, breaking and symmetry and characteristics of the crust, were unaffected (p>0,05) by the incorporation of any of the factors (oxidizing agent, regulating acidity, emulsifier and stabilizer). Thus, the combination of food additives, 20 ppm ascorbic acid and 2000 ppm of DATEM, is the closest formulation to the standard essay and the one that presents the most interesting bread characteristics results, so this is the most suitable formulation to its production.
Date of Award2012
Original languagePortuguese
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorCláudia Costa (Supervisor)


  • Baking
  • Technology frozen pre-baked bread
  • Technological devices
  • Food additive
  • Quality bread


  • Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar

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