Under which conditions do virtual influencers as brand endorsers provide positive outcomes?
: a systematic literature review

  • Beatriz Rita da Cruz Pineda Fernandes (Student)

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Over the past years, brands have been investing in influencer marketing to endorse their brand and products. Although, as the use of artificial intelligence grows, some brands have started to use it in their marketing strategies, virtual influencers. However, the number of research about management implications and implementation of virtual influencers in marketing strategies and as brand endorsers is still scarce. In response to this issue, this thesis contributes to the state-of-the-art literature focusing on VI’s and uncovers what would be interesting to study in future studies about the use of virtual influencers as endorsers. Through the systematic literature review of 25 peer-review articles with relevant information on this topic, we analyzed under which conditions virtual influencers provide positive outcomes as brand endorsers. The systematic review highlighted eight major conditions that influence the ability of virtual influencers to provide positive outcomes. In the end, it was proposed a future agenda for future studies in this field.
Date of Award24 Jul 2023
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
SupervisorSusana Silva (Supervisor) & Roberta De Cicco (Co-Supervisor)


  • Influencer marketing
  • Virtual influencer
  • Antecedents
  • Brand endorsement
  • Systematic literature review


  • Mestrado em Marketing

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