Acromegaly in humans and cats: pathophysiological, clinical and management resemblances and differences

Mariana Lopes-Pinto, Patrícia Lunet Marques, Ema Lacerda-Nobre, Diego Miceli, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Pedro Marques*

*Autor correspondente para este trabalho

Resultado de pesquisarevisão de pares

15 Transferências (Pure)

Resumo

Objective: Acromegaly is a disorder associated with excessive levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In general, GH/IGF-1 excess leads to morphologic craniofacial and acral changes as well as cardiometabolic complications, but the phenotypic changes and clinical presentation of acromegaly differ across species. Here, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of acromegaly in humans and cats, and we provide a systematic comparison between this disease across these different species. Design: A comprehensive literature review of pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of acromegaly in humans and in cats was performed. Results: Acromegaly is associated with prominent craniofacial changes in both species: frontal bossing, enlarged nose, ears and lips, and protuberant cheekbones are typically encountered in humans, whereas increased width of the head and skull enlargement are commonly found in cats. Malocclusion, prognathism, dental diastema and upper airway obstruction by soft tissue enlargement are reported in both species, as well as continuous growth and widening of extremities resulting in osteoarticular compromise. Increase of articular joint cartilage thickness, vertebral fractures and spine malalignment is more evident in humans, while arthropathy and spondylosis deformans may also occur in cats. Generalized organomegaly is equally observed in both species. Other similarities between humans and cats with acromegaly include heart failure, ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, and an overall increased cardiometabolic risk. In GH-secreting pituitary tumours, local compressive effects and behavioral changes are mostly observed in humans, but also present in cats. Cutis verticis gyrata and skin tags are exclusively found in humans, while palmigrade/plantigrade stance may occur in some acromegalic cats. Serum IGF-1 is used for acromegaly diagnosis in both species, but an oral glucose tolerance test with GH measurement is only useful in humans, as glucose load does not inhibit GH secretion in cats. Imaging studies are regularly performed in both species after biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly. Hypophysectomy is the first line treatment for humans and cats, although not always available in veterinary medicine. Conclusion: Acromegaly in humans and cats has substantial similarities, as a result of common pathophysiological mechanisms, however species-specific features may be found.
Idioma originalEnglish
Número do artigo101595
Páginas (de-até)1-11
Número de páginas11
RevistaGrowth Hormone and IGF Research
Volume76
DOIs
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - 24 mai. 2024

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