Arthroplasty with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement induces late loosening phenomena that compromise the prosthetic stability. As free radicals are inflammatory mediators and cytotoxic, it seemed useful to investigate whether PMMA induces the liberation of free radicals and/or cytotoxicity. The effect of PMMA interaction on cultured human fibroblasts was accessed by the cell viability test (MTT), and by the measurement of lipoperoxides in the incubation medium. The incubation with the medium exposed to PMMA induced a significant reduction in the viability and a significant increase in lipoperoxide liberation (vs control). These data suggest that PMMA is cytotoxic. This effect seems to be mediated by lipoperoxide and possibly by other free radicals, and may explain the peri-implant loosening phenomena that compromise the prosthetic stability.