The success of endodontic treatment depends on the complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, thus the search for new procedures to eliminate them is justified. The aim of this study was to assess bacterial reduction after intracanal irradiation with the Er:YAG laser. The canals of 70 extracted human maxillary canines were prepared up to file #40 using 1% NaOCl, irrigated with 17% EDTA, and then washed with physiological solution activated by ultrasound. The roots were sterilized by autoclaving, inoculated with 10 μl of a suspension containing 1.5×108 CFU/ml of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and incubated at 37°C for 72 h. The canals were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser using two energy settings: 60 mJ and 15 Hz, and 100 mJ and 10 Hz. The remaining bacteria were counted immediately and 48 h after laser irradiation. The results showed a high bacterial reduction at both time points. With 60 mJ and 15 Hz there was an immediate reduction of 99.73% and the reduction was 77.02% after 48 h, and with 100 mJ and 10 Hz there was an immediate reduction of 99.95% and the reduction was 84.52% after 48 h. Although the best results were observed with 100 mJ of energy, the difference between the two settings was not statistically significant. The count performed 48 h after irradiation showed that E. faecalis were able to survive, and can grow even from small numbers.