Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC leaves and Pieris brassicae L. larvae aqueous extracts were assayed for their potential to prevent/induce DNA damage. None of them was mutagenic at the tested concentrations in the Ames test reversion assay using Salmonella His+ TA98 strains, with and without metabolic activation. In the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutation assay using mammalian V79 fibroblast cell line, extracts at 500 μg/mL neither induced mutations nor protected against the mutagenicity caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). In the comet assay, none of the extracts revealed to be genotoxic by itself, and both afforded protection, more pronounced for larvae extracts, against MMS-induced genotoxicity. As genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of Brassica vegetables are commonly attributed to isothiocyanates, the extracts were screened for these compounds by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No sulfur compound was detected. These findings demonstrate that both extracts could be useful against damage caused by genotoxic compounds, the larvae extract being the most promising.