It is known that current trends on bone bioengineering seek ideal scaffolds and explore innovative methods to restore tissue function. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of anorganic bovine bone as osteoblast carrier in critical-size calvarial defects. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells (1x105 cells/well) were cultured on granules of anorganic bovine bone in 24-well plates and after 24 h these granules were implanted into rat critical-size calvarial defects (group Biomaterial + Cells). In addition, other groups were established with different fillings of the defect: Blood Clot (negative control); Autogenous Bone (positive control); Biomaterial (only granules) and Cells (only MC3T3-E1 cells). After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and the calvaria were technically processed in order to allow histological and morphometric analysis. It was possible to detect blood vessels, connective tissue and newly formed bone in all groups. Particularly in the Biomaterial + Cells group, it was possible to observe a profile of biological events between the positive control group (autogenous bone) and the group in which only anorganic bovine granules were implanted. Altogether, the results of the present study showed that granules of anorganic bovine bone can be used as carrier to osteoblasts and that adding growth factors at the moment of implantation should maximize these results.