High frequency of the EMRSA-15 clone (ST22-MRSA-IV) in hospital wastewater

Vanessa Silva, Jessica Ribeiro, Jaqueline Rocha, Célia M. Manaia, Adriana Silva, José Eduardo Pereira, Luís Maltez, José Luis Capelo, Gilberto Igrejas, Patrícia Poeta*

*Autor correspondente para este trabalho

Resultado de pesquisarevisão de pares

12 Citações (Scopus)
37 Transferências (Pure)


Hospital wastewaters often carry multidrug-resistant bacteria and priority pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes present in wastewaters may reach the natural environment facilitating their spread. Thus, we aimed to isolate MRSA from wastewater of 3 hospitals located in the north of Portugal and to characterize the isolates regarding the antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages. A total of 96 wastewater samples were collected over six months. The water was filtered, and the filtration membrane was immersed in BHI broth supplemented with 6.5% of NaCl and incubated. The inoculum was streaked in ORSAB agar plates for MRSA isolation. The isolates susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobial agents. The presence of resistance and virulence genes was accessed by PCR. Molecular typing was performed in all isolates. From the 96 samples, 28 (29.2%) were MRSA-positive. Most isolates had a multidrug-resistant profile and carried the mecA, blaZ, aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2′′)-Ia, aph(3′)-IIIa, ermA, ermB, ermC, tetL, tetM, dfrA dfrG and catpC221 genes. Most of the isolates were ascribed to the immune evasion cluster (IEC) type B. The isolates belonged to ST22-IV, ST8-IV and ST105-II and spa-types t747, t1302, t19963, t6966, t020, t008 and tOur study shows that MRSA can be found over time in hospital wastewater. The wastewater treatment processes can reduce the MRSA load. The great majority of the isolates belonged to ST22 and spa-type t747 which suggests the fitness of these genetic lineages in hospital effluents.
Idioma originalEnglish
Número do artigo147
Número de páginas10
Número de emissão1
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - jan. 2022

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