Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions

David Rodrigues*, Marília Prada, Rui Gaspar, Margarida V. Garrido, Diniz Lopes

*Autor correspondente para este trabalho

Resultado de pesquisarevisão de pares

106 Citações (Scopus)


The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users’ interpretations always correspond to the developers’/researchers’ intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems—Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at with potential applications to different research domains.
Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (de-até)392-405
Número de páginas14
RevistaBehavior Research Methods
Número de emissão1
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - 1 fev 2018
Publicado externamenteSim

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