Alteration in gut microbiota has been associated with COVID-19. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we outlined three potential interconnected mechanistic pathways leading to gut dysbiosis as an adverse outcome following SARS-CoV-2 presence in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence from the literature and current uncertainties are reported for each step of the different pathways. One pathway investigates evidence that intestinal infection by SARS-CoV-2 inducing intestinal inflammation alters the gut microbiota. Another pathway links the binding of viral S protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to the dysregulation of this receptor, essential in intestinal homeostasis—notably for amino acid metabolism—leading to gut dysbiosis. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 could induce gut dysbiosis by infecting intestinal bacteria. Assessing current evidence within the Adverse Outcome Pathway framework justifies confidence in the proposed mechanisms to support disease management and permits the identification of inconsistencies and knowledge gaps to orient further research.