Modification of carob powder (Ceratonia siliqua L.) for by-product valorisation in the food industries

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Resumo

Carob fruit originates from the carob tree, is a leguminous evergreen tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cultivated in the Mediterranean area, namely in Portugal [1]. Its production is highly relevant, extensive, and sustainable. Carob pods contain various relevant nutrients, which include proteins, carbohydrates, and fibers [2]. In this study, after applying an innovative milling process to obtain an integral carob flour [3], carob powder with granulometry >100 µm, which is composed principally of insoluble fiber, was modified by a two-step acidic/thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis to improve its functional properties as a result of the cleavage and degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin compounds [4],[5]. The optimal time and solvent concentration were considered as experimental factors for the acidic/thermal hydrolysis, as well as the ratio of enzyme-substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis. The selected response variable was the solubility. The assessed solvents were sulfuric, lactic, and acetic acids, deionized water at 100 °C, and the enzymes were cellulase and xylanase. Furthermore, it was assessed how the industrial steps at industrial level could be minimized in order to decrease process’s costs and runtime.
The acidic/thermal hydrolysis results show that the lower solvent concentration and the higher hydrolysis time were optimal conditions for increasing the solubility. However, using an acidic solvent did not differ significantly from using deionized water, a greener and more environmentally solvent for industrial scales. As for the enzymatic hydrolysis, results suggest that when applied as an individual step, it could improve the solubility by 30%, but when applied uninterruptedly after the thermal hydrolysis, no significant improvement in solubility was detected. In conclusion, the optimal modification process for carob powder encompasses a single thermal hydrolysis using water to obtain 50% solubility of the initial carob powder. The resulting liquid by-product can be used to produce sweeteners, fillings, creams, etc., highlighting the importance of food-chain valorization in food industries.
Idioma originalEnglish
Número de páginas1
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - 21 mar. 2023
EventoDare2Change : Innovation-Driven Agrifood Business - Centro de Congressos do Sur, Bock Arena, Porto
Duração: 21 mar. 202321 mar. 2023
https://dare2change.pt

Conferência

ConferênciaDare2Change
País/TerritórioPortugal
CidadePorto
Período21/03/2321/03/23
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