Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use

Marília Prada*, David L. Rodrigues, Margarida V. Garrido, Diniz Lopes, Bernardo Cavalheiro, Rui Gaspar

*Autor correspondente para este trabalho

Resultado de pesquisarevisão de pares

65 Citações (Scopus)


Electronic Mediated Communication (EMC) has become highly prevalent in our daily lives. Many of the communication formats used in EMC are text-based (e.g., instant messaging), and users often include visual paralinguistic cues in their messages. In the current study, we examined the usage of two such cues – emoji and emoticons. Specifically, we compared self-reported frequency of use, as well as attitudes (6 bipolar items, e.g., “fun” vs. “boring”) and motives for their usage (9 motives, e.g., “express how I feel to others”). We also examined these indicators according to age and gender. Overall, participants (N = 474, 72.6% women; Mage = 30.71, SD = 12.58) reported using emoji (vs. emoticons) more often, revealed more positive attitudes toward emoji usage, and identified more with motives to use them. Moreover, all the ratings were higher among younger (vs. older) participants. Results also showed that women reported to use emoji (but not emoticons) more often and expressed more positive attitudes toward their usage than men. However, these gender differences were particularly evident for younger participants. No gender differences were found for emoticons usage. These findings add to the emerging body of literature by showing the relevance of considering age and gender, and their interplay, when examining patterns of emoji and emoticons use.
Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (de-até)1925-1934
Número de páginas10
RevistaTelematics and Informatics
Número de emissão7
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - out 2018

Impressão digital

Mergulhe nos tópicos de investigação de “Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use“. Em conjunto formam uma impressão digital única.