Socio-demographic differences in positive youth development in Spanish undergraduates

Diego Gomez-Baya*, Maria Muñoz-Parralo, Antonio David Martin-Barrado, Elizabeth Trejos-Castillo, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Nora Wiium

*Autor correspondente para este trabalho

Resultado de pesquisarevisão de pares

13 Transferências (Pure)


The positive youth development (PYD) model is a strength-based conceptualization of the transition to adulthood, in which the relationships that individuals establish within this context are essential. These adaptive contextual–individual interactions allow youths to acquire better psychological adjustment and greater social participation. The PYD model differentiates five areas to be nurtured (the 5Cs) in young people: confidence, competence, connection, caring, and character. The present work aimed to examine differences in overall PYD and its respective 5Cs among Spanish university students based on their socio-demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study with 1038 students between 18 and 28 years old from 11 Spanish universities was conducted. In order to assess the 5Cs, the Spanish adaptation of the 5Cs of the PYD Short Form was used. When analyzing the variability of the 5Cs according to socio-demographic variables, some relevant differences were found, though with small effect sizes. Students with better scores on the 5Cs included those who were living in the countryside or big cities, studied Social Sciences, were enrolled in small universities, had parents with a high education level, and those who reported high socio-economic status. Women presented higher scores in terms of connection, caring, and character, whereas men reported more perceived competence and confidence, which may be due to gender socialization during adolescence and youth. Families with parents with a higher level of education and of a higher socio-economic level may offer more resources and support greater positive youth development. These social inequalities in PYD may suggest the need for the promotion of equal opportunities in education, health promotion, and social participation, which may allow young people from all backgrounds to develop their individual potential.

Idioma originalEnglish
Número do artigo11
Número de páginas14
RevistaSocial Sciences
Número de emissão1
Estado da publicaçãoPublicado - jan. 2024

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